103d INFANTRY DIVISION WORLD WAR II ASSOCIATION
Prior to World War I, divisions were generally organized in a "Square" design. A "Square" division had four infantry regiments. This type of organization permitted regiments to be easily separated into two groups to form a brigade. On an organizational display chart and when operational in the field, the division’s two brigades, containing two regiments each, would form a square.
From World War I to just before World War II, the Army organized divisions in "Squares." After the start of World War II, however, the Army reorganized its divisions into a "Triangular" design with three regiments instead of four. This new design provided a great deal of command and control flexibility, as regiments were under the direct control of division headquarters or assigned to a single brigade. The "Triangular" division also provided economy of force, thus allowing for more divisions using the same numbers of forces. The 103d Infantry Division (Cactus) went to war as a "Triangular" organization.
Each unit within the division was organized according to a Table of Organization and Equipment (TO&E). The TO&E was the basic authorization for each unit’s personnel and equipment, as well as rank structures. In February 1944, major changes to the Regimental TO&E and its subordinate elements were released. Below are the TO&Es for the Regiment, Battalion, Anti-Tank Company, and Rifle Companies:
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